The bootloader or boot program or bootstrap loader is a special software program that is responsible for locating and loading all the required files i.e. kernel, filesystem, and starting the operating system. Universal Boot Loader (U-Boot) is one of the most popular open-source bootloaders that is used in a lot of different architectures/platforms/devices.
In this section, we will learn about U-Boot, creating emulated IoT devices using Qemu, booting the IoT devices, and bypassing device login to access the files and resources of an IoT device.
What will you learn?
Basics of U-boot bootloader
How to emulate an embedded/IoT device using Qemu
Booting an embedded device using TFTP server and local files
Bypassing login authentication to steal files from the device filesystem
ARM Device emulation with qemu (https://www.qemu.org/docs/master/system/target-arm.html)
Embedded IoT Linux for Red-Blue Teams (https://www.pentesteracademy.com/course?id=37)
Learn the basics of a U-Boot bootloader by interacting with the bootloader of a simulated IoT device.
Build u-boot, kernel, filesystem archives from source and create an emulated IoT device using Qemu.
Locate the kernel and filesystem archives on the filesystem of the device using u-boot. Then, load these archives into the memory and boot the device.
Boot an IoT device by fetching the required files (kernel, DTB and filesystem archives) from a TFTP server present on the same network.
U-Boot: Insert Backdoor Shell into FS
Bypass the login authentication of an emulated IoT device by writing a rogue service file to the filesystem of this device.
U-Boot: Backdoor FS with Kernel Module
Bypass the login authentication of an emulated IoT device by inserting a rogue kernel module into the kernel of this device.
U-Boot: Stealing Files from FS
Steal the files present on the filesystem of an emulated IoT device by using the u-boot console.